It assesses the role of various demand-side factors affecting the decision of when to leave school, including changes in the expected rate of return to an additional year of education, the level of real interest rates, tuition costs, and cyclic labor market conditions. The chapter begins by using individual micro data from the General Social Survey to analyze the contribution of changing family-background factors to intercohort trends in high school and college graduation. Next, it discusses the effects of three local-level variables: It also uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to show that dropping out of school is, by and large, a once-for-all decision since only a small fraction of dropouts eventually return to school.
Dropout and Enrollment Trends in the Postwar Period: What Went Wrong in the s? Dropout and Enrollment Trends in the Postwar Period: What Went Wrong in the s? 4 The Sexual Activity and Birth-control Use of American Teenagers;. The Postwar Economy: As the Cold War unfolded in the decade and a half after World War II, the United States experienced phenomenal economic growth. The war brought the return of prosperity, and in the postwar period the United States consolidated its position as the world's richest country. American poetry, the poetry of the A distinctly American lyric voice of the colonial period was Phillis Wheatley, The last forty years of poetry in the United States have seen the emergence of a number of groups, schools, and trends, whose lasting importance has, necessarily, yet to be demonstrated.
In addition to commercial features, several Hollywood directors produced documentaries for government and military agencies. The last three were shot on location and were made especially effective by their immediacy.
Full-scale mobilization had ended the Depression domestically, and victory had opened vast, unchallenged markets in the war-torn economies of western Europe and Japan.
Furthermore, from throughHollywood had experienced the most stable and lucrative three years in its history, and inwhen two-thirds of the American population went to the movies at least once a week, the studios earned record-breaking profits.
The euphoria ended quickly, however, as inflation and labour unrest boosted domestic production costs and as important foreign markets, including Britain and Italy, were temporarily lost to protectionist quotas.
Although the studios continued to produce traditional genre films, such as westerns and musicals, their financial difficulties encouraged them to make realistic small-scale dramas rather than fantastic lavish epics.
Instead of depending on spectacle and special effects to create excitement, the new lower-budget films tried to develop thought-provoking or perverse stories reflecting the psychological and social problems besetting returning war veterans and others adapting to postwar life.
On November 24,a group of eight screenwriters and two directors, later known as the Hollywood Tenwere sentenced to serve up to a year in prison for refusing to testify. That evening the members of the Association of Motion Picture Producers, which included the leading studio heads, published what became known as the Waldorf Declaration, in which they fired the members of the Hollywood Ten and expressed their support of HUAC.
The studios, afraid to antagonize already shrinking audiences, then initiated an unofficial policy of blacklistingrefusing to employ any person even suspected of having communist associations. Hundreds of people were fired from the industry, and many creative artists were never able to work in Hollywood again.
Throughout the blacklisting era, filmmakers refrained from making any but the most conservative motion pictures; controversial topics or new ideas were carefully avoided. The threat of television The film industry believed that the greatest threat to its continued success was posed by television, especially in light of the Paramount decrees.
In the —53 season, the ability to produce multiple-track stereophonic sound joined this list. In the late s, fewer than 12 percent of Hollywood features were produced in colour, primarily because of the expense of three-strip Technicolor filming.
By more than 50 percent of American features were made in colour, and the figure reached 94 percent by The aspect ratio the ratio of width to height of the projected motion-picture image had been standardized at 1.
For both optical and architectural reasons this change in size usually meant increased width, not increased height. Early experiments with multiple-camera wide-screen Cineramaand stereoscopic 3-D Natural Visionprovoked audience interest, but it was an anamorphic process called CinemaScope that prompted the wide-screen revolution.
By the end ofevery Hollywood studio but Paramount had leased a version of the process from Fox Paramount adopted a nonanamorphic process called VistaVision that exposed double-frame images by running film through special cameras and projectors horizontally rather than verticallyand many studios were experimenting with wide-gauge film systems e.
Like the coming of sound, the conversion to wide-screen formats produced an initial regression as filmmakers learned how to compose and edit their images for the new elongated frame.
Sound had promoted the rise of aurally intensive genres such as the musical and the gangster film, and the wide-screen format similarly created a bias in favour of visually spectacular subjects and epic scale.
Given the political paranoia of the times, few subjects could be treated seriously, and the studios concentrated on presenting traditional genre fare—westerns, musicals, comedies, and blockbusters—suitable for wide-screen treatment.
Only a director like Hitchcockwhose style was oblique and imagist, could prosper in such a climate. Because they could no longer dominate the exhibition sector, they faced serious competition for the first time from independent and foreign filmmakers. The minor companies, however, owned modest studio facilities and had lost nothing by the Paramount decrees because they controlled no theatres.
They were thus able to prosper during this era, eventually becoming major companies themselves in the s.
Although it had roots in both Soviet expressive realism and French poetic realism, Neorealism was decidedly national in focus, taking as its subject the day-to-day reality of a country traumatized by political upheaval and war. The film featured both professional and nonprofessional actors and focused on ordinary people caught up in contemporary events.
Its documentary texture, postrecorded sound track, and improvisational quality became the hallmark of the Neorealist movement. In many respects it is more exemplary of the movement than Ossessione, and it is widely regarded as a masterpiece.
It also heralded the practices of shooting on location using natural lighting and postsynchronizing sound that later became standard in the film industry.
Federico Fellini had worked as a scriptwriter for Rossellini before directing in the s an impressive series of films whose form was Neorealist but whose content was allegorical I vitelloni [The Loafers], ; La strada [The Road], ; Le notti di Cabiria [Nights of Cabiria], Accordingly, his first films were Neorealist documentary shorts Gente del Po [People of the Po],but during the s he turned increasingly to an examination of the Italian bourgeoisie in such films as Cronaca di un amore ; Story of a Love AffairLa signora senza camelie ; Camille Without Camelliasand Le amiche ; The Girlfriendsand in the early s Antonioni produced a trilogy on the malaise of the middle class that made him internationally famous.
Antonioni then began to use colour expressionistically in Deserto rosso ; Red Desert and Blow-Up to convey alienation and abstraction from human feeling, and all of his later works in some way concerned the breakdown of personal relationships Zabriskie Point, ; Identificazione di una donna [Identification of a Woman], and of identity itself Professione: Reporter [The Passenger], Matthewa brilliant semidocumentary reconstruction of the life of Christ with Marxist overtones.
Like Pasolini, Bernardo Bertolucci was a Marxist intellectual whose films attempt to correlate sexuality, ideologyand history; his most successful films were Il conformista ; The Conformista striking dissection of the psychopathology of fascism, Ultimo tango a Parigi ; Last Tango in Parisa meditation on sex and death, and Novecento ;a six-hour epic covering 50 years of Italian class conflict.
Beginning in the s, the declining European economy compelled many Italian directors to make coproductions with American, French, German, and Swedish companies. In order to maximize profits, several such films featured international stars in leading roles. This dependence on world markets—as well as the increased popularity of television throughout Italy—often led to the loss of national identity in Italian films, although such filmmakers as Roberto BenigniCarlo Verdone, and Maurizio Nichetti were able to use the new situation to good advantage.
Perhaps the most individual voice in Italian cinema during the s was Nanni Moretti, whose humourous, satiric works, such as Caro diario ; Dear Diarycritique the social values of the late 20th century. It provided a training ground for young directors outside the traditional industry system and influenced the independent production style of the movement that culminated in the French postwar period of renewal—the Nouvelle Vagueor New Wave.
The first films of the New Wave were independently produced dramatic shorts shot in mm by the Cahiers critics in —57, but was the year that brought the movement to international prominence, when each of its three major figures made their first features.
Its ultimate effect was to deconstruct the narrative language that had evolved over the previous 60 years and to create a reflexive cinema, or meta-cinema, whose techniques provided a continuous comment on its own making.Airplane: Airplane, any of a class of fixed-wing aircraft that is heavier than air, propelled by a screw propeller or a high-velocity jet, and supported by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings.
Learn more about the different types of airplanes as well as their construction. (Editor’s note: Gerald Perschbacher is a pricing consultant for Old Cars Price Guide, a bi-monthly periodical covering values from , and its annual companion book, “ Collector Car Price Guide,” which covers values from ”.
The Young Republic. Following independence, the American states began the process of drafting new state constitutions, many of which reflected increased democratic elements (women and slaves excepted)..
The nation’s governing document was the Articles of Confederation whose weaknesses led to a “critical period" in the timberdesignmag.comvative elements in the country were especially disturbed by. Religion in the Postwar Period The years following the Second World War were a time of widespread public religious expression in the United States.
The percentage of Americans attending a weekly religious service reached its . The war years and post-World War II trends Decline of the Hollywood studios. During the U.S. involvement in World War II, the Hollywood film industry cooperated closely with the government to support its war-aims information timberdesignmag.coming the declaration of war on Japan, the government created a Bureau of Motion Picture Affairs to coordinate the production of entertainment features with.
Finnair (Finnish: Finnair Oyj, Swedish: Finnair Abp) is the flag carrier and largest airline of Finland, with its headquarters in Vantaa on the grounds of Helsinki Airport, its timberdesignmag.comr and its subsidiaries dominate both domestic and international air travel in Finland.
Its major shareholder is the government of Finland, which owns % of the shares.. Finnair is a member of the Oneworld.