According to those proposing a change in terminology, "slave" perpetuates the crime of slavery in language, by reducing its victims to a nonhuman noun instead of, according to Andi Cumbo-Floyd, "carry[ing] them forward as people, not the property that they were". Other historians prefer "slave" because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it accurately reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow for. Chattel slavery Chattel slavery, also called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel personal property of the owner and are bought and sold as commodities. Typically, under the chattel slave system, slave status was imposed on children of the enslaved at birth.
It has been said that there are two pursuits which Chinese enjoy, gambling and secret societies. It is my desire to bring their mysteries and machinations to you with this address and, in so doing, provide stimuli for the quest for further knowledge.
Let us commence with China and the Hung Society. To provide a chronological and conceptual framework for the subsequent in-depth discussion of the Hung Society, it is perhaps best to give a brief outline of the Chinese Dynasties.
The regaining of power by the dynasty gave rise to a period of severe instability. The northern part of the country finally succumbed to the marauding Juchen nomadic tribes. Hostility continued until the Southern Sun was finally defeated by the Mongols inthus the Yuan Dynasty began. China was restored to Chinese control and they extended their power into Central and Southeast Asia.
A republican government was established. However, this unfortunately did not herald a period of stability for China.
Let us now return to the Hung Society. They met in a peach garden and entered into a solemn oath of fidelity by offering prayers, burning incense and sacrificing a black ox and a white horse. The colours of the sacrificed animals were of special significance, representing the opposing forces of nature, for example: One of his loyal friends, Kwan Yi, was captured and put to death.
Kwan Ti became to the military what Confucius was to the literary. When the Hung Society was established, it adopted Kwan Ti as its Tutelary Deity, not only for what he typified as the God of the Soldiers but also for the unswerving loyalty he displayed to a sworn brother.
A link between the White Lily and the Hung Society was developed in He thought that the coming Buddha was prophesied in the rituals of the White Lily Society. The Son of the Lord, as mentioned in the Triad rituals, is also believed to have originated from the same rituals.
The dynasty was overthrown and a Buddhist monk, Hung Wu, who played a prominent role in the rebellion, was enthroned as the first Emperor of the new Ming Dynasty. China returned to Chinese rule.
In addition to the societies mentioned, China had an abundance of societies and guilds: Because the Hung Society members called themselves Brothers they were mistakenly perceived by the authorities as Christians, which resulted in greater hostility directed towards them.
This persecution resulted in the Society becoming political, and numerous actions against the Manchu regime occurred.
The defeated Wang Lung and numerous supporters were executed.
The Western powers were all too well aware that their trade interests could be affected by the fall of the dynasty. A multinational force consisting of European, American and Japanese forces defeated the Chinese army, entered Peking and scattered the Boxers.
The secret societies realised after the routing that they no longer could rely on their traditional means of fighting martial arts and ancient magical charms against the sophisticated weaponry of the foreign soldiers.
Chinese intellectuals, classical Confucian and foreign educated, sought to improve the lot of the Chinese populace by incorporating the best of the foreign ideas and technology into China, while still maintaining the Chinese culture.Sub-Saharan Africa. Contemporary Africa; Slavery on the Barbary Coast; Barbary slave trade; Slave Coast; Angola; Chad; Ethiopia; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Somalia.
I. Introduction. In the decades leading up to the Civil War, the southern states experienced extraordinary change that would define the region and its role in American history for decades, even centuries, to come.
I. Introduction. In the decades leading up to the Civil War, the southern states experienced extraordinary change that would define the region and its role in American history for . THE HUNG SOCIETY AND FREEMASONRY THE CHINESE WAY Part 1—Hung Society to Chinese Masonic Society Part 2—Regular Freemasonry in China: by timberdesignmag.com Graham Stead Secretary of W H Green Memorial Masonic Study Circle.
The experiences of Muslim women (Arabic: مسلمات Muslimāt, singular مسلمة Muslima) vary widely between and within different societies. At the same time, their adherence to Islam is a shared factor that affects their lives to a varying degree and gives them a common identity that may serve to bridge the wide cultural, social, and economic differences between them.
Slater Mill, founded in by Samuel Slater, is now used as a museum dedicated to textile manufacturing. There was more than one kind of frontier and one kind of pioneer in early America. While many people were trying to carve out a new existence in states and territories continually stretching to.