I was sitting at home, revising my manuscript introduction and feeling jealous of all of my historian friends at the conference, when I got an email telling me my last and best hope for a tenure-track job this year had evaporated. I closed my laptop and walked out of my office.
A recent post here about thawing permafrost releasing climate-warming carbon dioxide into the atmosphere was no exception. As CO2 has had no noticeable effect on climate in million years, until 20 years ago, when carbon tax was invented, any The dramatic effect of role models essay climatic effects can be ignored.
I ordinarily ignore comments like the one I quote above. Discover is a science magazine, not a platform for political grandstanding. And it is especially not a platform for ideas that run counter to basic physics and more than a century of hard scientific work by generations of researchers.
This is not to say that I and the other writers and editors here at Discover view science as being infallible. Scientists know this better than anyone, so skepticism is one of their cardinal values.
Journalists are also supposed to be skeptical and self-critical. Maybe I should check because I could be deceived by my preconceived notions. My evidence for my comment, is climate history over million years, during which time, when CO2 increased, global temperature decreased, for several million years, and when CO2 decreased, global temperature increased, also for several millions of years.
Hieb has changed the graph a number of times over the years. And as Schmidt puts it: This kind of heuristic reconstruction comes from the qualitative geological record which gives indications of glaciations and hothouses, but is not really adequate for quantitative reconstructions of global mean temperatures.
Over the last few decades, much better geochemical proxy compilations with better dating have appeared. For more on proxy records, see this explainer. You are deluded by hubris — the idea that by reading one graph of suspect origin you know better than an entire scientific community consisting of literally thousands of researchers, operating over many decades and doing the actual hard work of science — and holding up their findings to rigorous review by expert peers.
I went on to say this: Their conclusions are nuanced — which is to be expected for a system as complex as global climate, and especially when looking at it over such long time periods. Other scientists have addressed particular details of the geologic record. Yet climate dismissives do just that.
The rise of the Appalachians plunged Earth into an ice age so severe that it drove nearly two-thirds of all living species extinct. Commenters on my blog also often claim that since the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is so low compared to that of water vapor, also a greenhouse gas, it could not possibly play the role of a thermostat.
But here, too, rigorous research shows otherwise. The answer involves different characteristics of greenhouse gases. When the atmosphere cools enough, water vapor condenses and rains out. The researchers found that without these non-condensing greenhouse gases — CO2 foremost among them — there would be nothing to prevent the atmosphere from cooling enough to cause water vapor to rain out.
And since it is such a potent greenhouse gas, if water vapor were to rain out, the result would be very dramatic cooling. In this way, CO2 may not be as potent a greenhouse gas as water vapor, but it is actually more important. This energy trap produces the greenhouse effect, the main driver of global warming.
Temperatures rise before CO2 as we come out of an ice age. So once again, CO2 cannot be the most important factor. These are known as Milankovitch cycles. Then other natural feedbacks kick in — most especially changes in carbon dioxide.
But in general, the picture looks like this: As Earth starts to warm at the end of an ice age due to increased solar radiation reaching Earth, ice sheets and snow begin to contract.
These surfaces are very reflective.
So as they shrink, less sunlight is reflected back into space. This strongly enhances the warming, which reduces the ice and snow, which causes more warming, which increases the CO2, leading to even more warming. Skeptical Science posted an excellent explainer about the results here.
But the upshot of the study was this: Without the CO2 thermostat, Earth would likely be a proverbial snowball.Celebrity Role Models Children Emulate Essay Celebrity Role Models Children Emulate Gary Gardner July 11, Com Phyllis Rosenburg Celebrities are all around us influencing our children ; they are on the radio, televisions, computers, ipods and .
The Chauvet Cave is the most ancient trace of graphic language by human. This is a mix-media artwork associating a drawing with charcoal and sanguine pencil (iron oxides, like the original bear in the cave) on paper, with a gestural painting (grey oil paint on acrylic glass above drawing).
The signs of the gap—really, a chasm—between the poor and the super-rich are hard to miss in Silicon Valley.
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