It is called a democracy, because not the few but the many govern. If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if to social standing, advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition.
Following the assassination of Hipparchus c, Hippias took on sole rule, and in response to the loss of his brother, became a worse leader and increasingly disliked. Hippias exiled of the Athenian noble families, amongst them Cleisthenes ' family, the Alchmaeonids.
Upon their exile, they went to Delphi, and Herodotus  says they bribed the Pithia to always tell visiting Spartans that they should invade Attica and overthrow Hippias. This, supposedly, worked after a number of times, and Cleomenes led a Spartan force to overthrow Hippias, which succeeded, and instated an oligarchy.
Cleisthenes disliked the Spartan rule, along with many other Athenians, and so made his own bid for power. The result of this was democracy in Athensbut considering Cleisthenes' motivation for using the people to gain power, as without their support, he would have been defeated, and so Athenian democracy may be tinted by the fact its creation served greatly the man who created it.
The reforms of Cleisthenes replaced the traditional four Ionic "tribes" phyle with ten new ones, named after legendary heroes of Greece and having no class basis, which acted as electorates.
Each tribe was in turn divided into three trittyes one from the coast; one from the city and one from the inland divisionswhile each trittys had one or more demes see deme — depending on their population — which became the basis of local government.
The tribes each selected fifty members by lot for the Boulethe council which governed Athens on a day-to-day basis. The public opinion of voters could be influenced by the political satires written by the comic poets and performed in the city theaters. Most offices were filled by lot, although the ten strategoi generals were elected.
Early Athenian coin, 5th century BC. Prior to the rise of Athens, Spartaa city-state with a militaristic culture, considered itself the leader of the Greeks, and enforced a hegemony. The silver mines of Laurion contributed significantly to the development of Athens in the 5th century BC, when the Athenians learned to prospect, treat, and refine the ore and used the proceeds to build a massive fleet, at the instigation of Themistocles.
This provoked two Persian invasions of Greece, both of which were repelled under the leadership of the soldier-statesmen Miltiades and Themistocles see Persian Wars.
In the Athenians, led by Miltiadesprevented the first invasion of the Persians, guided by king Darius Iat the Battle of Marathon.
In the Persians returned under a new ruler, Xerxes I. The Hellenic League led by the Spartan King Leonidas led 7, men to hold the narrow passageway of Thermopylae against the ,—, army of Xerxes, during which time Leonidas and other Spartan elites were killed.
Simultaneously the Athenians led an indecisive naval battle off Artemisium.
However, this delaying action was not enough to discourage the Persian advance which soon marched through Boeotiasetting up Thebes as their base of operations, and entered southern Greece.
This forced the Athenians to evacuate Athens, which was taken by the Persians, and seek the protection of their fleet. Subsequently, the Athenians and their allies, led by Themistoclesdefeated the Persian navy at sea in the Battle of Salamis.
Xerxes had built himself a throne on the coast in order to see the Greeks defeated. Instead, the Persians were routed. Sparta's hegemony was passing to Athens, and it was Athens that took the war to Asia Minor. These victories enabled it to bring most of the Aegean and many other parts of Greece together in the Delian Leaguean Athenian-dominated alliance.
Athenian hegemony — BC [ edit ] Main article: Age of Pericles Pericles — an Athenian general, politician and orator — distinguished himself above the other personalities of the era, men who excelled in politicsphilosophyarchitecturesculpturehistory and literature.
He fostered arts and literature and gave to Athens a splendor which would never return throughout its history. He executed a large number of public works projects and improved the life of the citizens. Hence, he gave his name to the Athenian Golden Age. Silver mined in Laurium in southeastern Attica contributed greatly to the prosperity of this "Golden" Age of Athens.
During the time of the ascendancy of Ephialtes as leader of the democratic faction, Pericles was his deputy.Pericles started his political career in the law courts and was one of the leading prosecutors in getting Cimon ostracised from Athens in B.C.
Having got rid of his political opponent and the murder of his other political rival Ephialtes in B.C. Pericles was able to consolidate his position as leading statesmen for Athens. Ancient Greek statesman Pericles was born c.
B.C. in Athens, Greece. His father, Xanthippus, was a famous general and statesman who came from a .
The Age of Pericles refers to part of the Classical Age of Greece, when the dominant polis—in terms of culture and politics—was Athens, Greece. Most of the cultural wonders that we associate with ancient Greece come from this period.
In the classical period, Athens was a center for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Akademia and Aristotle's Lyceum, Athens was also the birthplace of Socrates, Plato, Pericles, Aristophanes, Sophocles, and many other prominent philosophers, writers and politicians of the ancient .
Pericles (sometimes spelled Perikles) lived between about – B.C.E. and was one of the most important leaders of the classical period of Athens, Greece. He is largely responsible for rebuilding the city following the devastating Persian Wars of – B.C.E.
Aspasia: Influential Concubine to Pericles. Article. As a coastal city and hub of the Ancient Greek world, Athens was frequently visited by sailors and merchants who docked Ten Noble and Notorious Women of Ancient Greece.
There were, no doubt, many notable women in ancient Greece, but history books are usually silent on female.