Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate— While the Byzantine Roman and Sassanid Persian empires were both weakened by warfare —a new power in the form of Islam grew in the Middle East. In a series of rapid Muslim conquestsArab armiesled by the Caliphs and skilled military commanders such as Khalid ibn al-Walidswept through most of the Middle East, taking more than half of Byzantine territory and completely engulfing the Persian lands.
Middle East Environmental History: Ideas from an Emerging Field Sam White In the past two decades, world environmental history has taken off as an area of research. Environmental historians have included ever more global and comparative dimensions in their work, and world historians have embraced more environmental perspectives.
Yet until recently, the Middle East was mostly missing from this picture. Covered by only a handful of studies, the region remained largely unrepresented in the field. Now in the past few years, the publication of new works promises to establish the region in world environmental history and to inject environmental themes into Middle East studies, from Turkey to the Arabian Peninsula and from North Africa to Iran.
These works draw on a wide range of original evidence over a broad chronological and geographic scope and incorporate an array of new methods and data from diverse fields including anthropology, archaeology, epidemiology, and climatology.
This article examines the emerging shape of the field and considers some of its implications for world history. I argue that an environmental approach to the Middle Eastern past presents at least three important ideas for world historians: First, it emphasizes commonalities and continuities among the various nations, empires, and religions of Middle East history, helping to establish the region as a meaningful unit of study across time and space.
Whereas traditional historiographies have often singled out the region as a special site of religious or ethnic conflict, these environmental perspectives fit Middle East history into a common human past, opening the way for a stronger integration into world history and hopefully more enlightening historical comparisons with other parts of the world.
Background and Prospects In certain respects, scholars of various fields have investigated Middle East environments and societies for some time. For decades, prehistorians have reconstructed natural and anthropogenic changes in the landscape through sediment and pollen analysis, 1 and classical archaeologists have reconstructed elements of population and settlement, agriculture and erosion through excavations and field surveys.
Furthermore, starting in the s, historians under the influence of the Annales school began to look more closely into issues of demography, disease, and land use. In the wider arena of historical geography or environmental history, analysis of the Middle East per se was often neglected 4 or edged out by studies encompassing the Mediterranean, usually written by scholars focused on Europe and unfamiliar with Middle Eastern languages.
Pioneering works of Middle East environmental history bridged these difficulties through imaginative use of sources, interdisciplinary approaches, and wide chronological or comparative perspectives.
The past couple of years have produced, for instance, three new dissertations on epidemics in the Ottoman Empire 10 and one on Ottoman forestry, 11 with more in progress; new studies on Ottoman famines; 12 monographs on the environmental history of Ottoman Egypt 13 and the Little Ice Age in the Ottoman Empire; 14 and even an edited volume on Ottoman animals.
The following sections draw out some of the key themes from this still emerging field of study. The Unity of Middle East History The best works of world environmental history—by embracing long-term, transnational, and interdisciplinary perspectives—have succeeded in peering through the artificial boundaries separating established academic fields.
Such insights could in time make a major contribution to the study of the Middle East and its place in world history as well. Archaeologists unearthed the ancient world, classicists studied Hellenic through Roman times, Byzantinists constituted their own specialty and Ottomanists yet another, while modern Middle East history has too often been dominated by nationalist perspectives dismissive of the old transnational empires.
Language barriers, a focus on cultural history or ethnic and religious identity, and sometimes an essentialist framework of nations and civilizations have all abetted these divisions. This fragmentation leaves an impression that different specialists have been studying entirely different peoples and places, with little sense of a shared past.
From the perspective of environmental history, the outlook could hardly be more different. While it is true that for reasons of language and evidence individual studies have often focused on just one area or era at a time, the broader picture from the field is one of a shared past.
Perhaps most important has been the way environmental historians analyze populations first and foremost as members a species interacting with its environment, rather than as nations or religions.Since the Middle East is home to some of the world’s earliest civilizations, it is difﬁcult to choose a starting point for examining its political history, for no matter how far back the investigator searches, there still seem to be.
Middle East, however, the prohibition on interest was maintained until modern times and, although it was possible to evade it, the inability to legally enforce contracts that openly speciﬁed a rate of interest was an impediment to the emergence of banks and ﬁnancial.
The symbol of the winged sun was found throughout the Middle East. It was associated with divinity, royalty, and power. Middle Eastern rulers tried to modernize their states to compete more effectively with Europe.
An economic history of the Middle East and North Africa (Routledge, ) Excerpt and text search; Kirk, George Eden. Like today, throughout its history, the Middle East has many different tribes, and ethnic groups that have built a complex culture.
Sometimes the differences have also led to warfare and generations of conflict. and invaded Sasanid Empire and eastern parts of Byzantine Empire = 3 civil wars in mean time. 1st civil war transfer power to Umayyad family ruled from Syria, survived second civil war 92 but third transferred power to Abbasids ruled from Iraq THE CONQUEST S.
Like politicians throughout history and across the globe, political leaders in the Middle East often try to deflect public criticism of internal issues by focusing on external "enemies.".
|History of the Middle East AP World History||After decades of research, scholars are more aware than ever of the challenges posed by this deceptively simple question. Textual biases, poor archaeological visibility of nomadic remains, and tenuous ethnographic parallels all pose obstacles to reconstructing the complex dynamics of tribe-state interactions in antiquity.|
|Top 10 Most Powerful Women in History - Listverse||Practical information Kingship, especially the sacred aspects of the office of a king, has for a long time fascinated scholars in a variety of fields such as history, religious studies, or area studies. Kingship or any kind of absolutist power and its close relationship to and use of religion for the purpose of legitimizing power seem an almost universal concept in human history.|
|A research of the middle east rulers throughout the history||Share95 Shares 17K The pages of history are littered with the names of powerful men. But from time to time, there have been women who have shone out as being equally powerful as the men in their time — some of whom have even gone on to shape the future of the world as we know it.|
|History of the Middle East - Wikipedia||The Middle Ages The period of European history extending from about to — ce is traditionally known as the Middle Ages.|